Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Departamento de Química
Teacher in charge
Maria Teresa Barros Silva
Carbohydrates may be considered to be highly versatile and manageable materials. Many biological functions are performed by carbohydrate materials; in particular, they play many roles as recognition compouds. They have many key roles, often in association with proteins. It is our purpose to focus in detail on the organic chemistry of the monosaccharides and disaccharides, to illustrate their versatility as synthons and to show how they relate to more complex natural products and to some non-carbohydrate organic compouds. Further more, it is planned to provide information into composition, degradation, function, interactions, structure, and synthesis of glycoconjugates. Finally, to explore the role of model compounds in glycoconjugate chemistry and function.
Carbohydrate chemistry: Structure of monosaccharides. Reactivity at the anomeric carbon and the hydroxyl groups. Regioselectivity (chemoselectivity). Reaction mechanisms. Disaccharides and glycosidation. Stereochemical control during. Synthesis of oligosaccharides. Cycloaddition reactions in carbohydrate chemistry. Enzymatic synthesis. New technologies using sugar chemistry. Application of new energy sources to carbohydrate chemistry (microwaves). Solid phase synthesis (automation) and chemistry in the aqueous phase. Biorenewable and biocompatible materials. Interaction of carbohydrates with biomolecules. Natural and synthetic glycoconjugates. The importance of sugars in biology. Discussion of relevant recent scientific reports in the chemical literature.
Carbohydrate Chemistry, Benjamin G. Davis, Antony J. Fairbanks, Oxford Chemistry Primers Monosaccharides: Their Chemistry and Their Roles in Natural Products, Peter Collins, Robin Ferrier, Wiley The Chemistry of C-Glycosides, Daniel E. Levy and Cho TangGlycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function, Howard J. Allen and Edward C. Kisailus;Polysaccharide Applications:Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals; Magda A. El-Nokaly and Helena A. Soini
Theoretical lectures are given in way to avoid monotony. During the lectures experimental results are used to demonstrate concepts which exemplify the importance of the understanding of chemistry. Problems sessions are an essential part of the course. Although in the first sessions the lecturer leads the students into discussions it is expected that later the students will be encouraged take over this initiative. When justified molecular models are used as a visual aid. 3D graphics and other audio-visual aids are used whenever possible.Problem sessions are also very important for the lecturer to identify difficulties that the students may have in their understanding and to find solutions to these difficulties by discussion. This is done in such a way that the high level of the course is maintained.The course will include thw criticl appraisal of results from recent publications in the field.
Besides the official exams, some mini tests will be set throuhout the course. These tests permit the students and lecturer to identify learning problems. They also allow the student to pass the course although they are encouraged to take the final exam. The course includes the frequent critical analysis of published articles.