Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Departamento de Informática
Teacher in charge
João Alexandre Carvalho Pinheiro Leite, José Júlio Alves Alferes
The course intends to give students a current perspective on the logical languages for representing knowledge, and its applications, as well as supplying a coherent and rigorous approach to the different functionalities of reasoning in Artificial Intelligence, with support in Computational Logic. It covers aspects of common sense reasoning, with non-monotonic languages, and of representation of ontologies, using description languages. Up-to-date languages and tools will be used for modeling concrete problems.
- Main logical formalisms for representing common sense knowledge.
- Main reasoning forms studied in Artificial Intelligence.
- General formalisms for representing ontologies.
- Description Logic, and the corresponding complexity classes.
- Formalisms to represent knowledge in practical application areas.
- ASP-solver for representing and reasoning about satisfaction problems.
- XSB-Prolog for efficient reasoning under the well-founded semantics.
- Description logic in the formalisation of ontologies.
- Reasoners to classify and test consistency of ontologies.
- Study and synthesise theoretical sub jects of medium/high complexity.
- Apply theoretical isssues in practical applications.
Value the importance of the existence of formal languages and methods, even as the basis for practical applications.
Become more aware of design trade-offs
- The Language of First-Order Logic
- Expressing Knowledge
- Reasoning with Horn Clauses
- Procedural Control of Reasoning
- Description Logics
- Non-monotonic Logic Programming
- Reasoning about Actions
- Knowledge Representation and Reasoning by Ronald Brachman & Hector Levesque, Morgan Kaufmann 2004.
- Handbook of Knowledge Representation edited by Frank van Harmelen, Vladimir Lifschitz and Bruce Porter, Elsevier 2007.
- Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Grigoris Antoniou. MIT Press, 1996.
- Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Declarative Problem Solving. Chitta Baral. Cambridge University Press, 2003
- The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. F. Baader, D. Calvanese, D. McGuinness, D. Nardi, and P. F. Patel-Schneider. Cambridge University Press, 2003
- K. Apt and R. Bol, Logic Programming and Negation: A Survey. In Journal of Logic Program. 19/20: 9-71, 1994. (Paper with an overview of semantic for normal logic programs, and corresponding derivation procedures)
- H. Przymusinska and T. Przymusinski, Semantic Issues in Deductive Databases and Logic Programs. In Formal Techniques in Artificial Intelligence, 321-367, North-Holland, 1990 (Paper with an overview of declarative semantics of normal logic programs)
- C. Baral and M. Gelfond. Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation. In Journal of Logic Programming, 19&20: 73-148, 1994. (Paper with definition of semantics for extended logic programs, and with methodology for representing knowledge with it)
- John McCarthy and Patrick J. Hayes. Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence. In B. Meltzer and D. Michie eds., Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press, 1969 (original paper proposing the Situation Calculus)
- S. Schiffel, M. Thielscher. Reconciling Situation Calculus and Fluent Calculus. Proc. of the 21. National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the 18th Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (AAAI06). 2006 (Comparison of Situation and Fluent calculus)
- R.A. Kowalski and Marek Sergot. A Logic-based Calculus of Events. In New Generation Computing, Vol. 4, No.1, February 1986, pp. 67-95. Also in Knowledge Base Management-Systems, eds. C. Thanos and J. W. Schmidt, Springer, pp. 23-51. Also in The Language of Time: A Reader, eds. Inderjeet Mani, J. Pustejovsky, and R. Gaizauskas, Oxford University Press. 2005. (Original paper proposing event calculus)
- Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz. Representing Actions and Change by Logic Programs, Journal of Logic Programming, vol. 17, Num. 2,3,4, pp. 301-323, 1993.(Paper that introduces the A language, and its translation to Logic Programs using situation calculus representation).
- Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz. Action Languages, Electronic Transaction on Artificial Intelligence, 1998. (Paper that introduces the B and C languages)
- J. J. Alferes, J. A. Leite, L. M. Pereira, H. Przymusinska and T. C. Przymusinski.Dynamic Updates of Non-Monotonic Knowledge Bases. The Journal of Logic Programming 45(1-3): 43-70, September/October 2000. (Paper defining Dynamic Logic Programming)
- J. J. Alferes, A. Brogi, J. A. Leite, L. M. Pereira. Evolving Logic Programs. In S. Flesca, S. Greco, N. Leone, G. Ianni (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence (JELIA''02), pages 50-61, Spriger-Verlag, LNCS 2424, 2002. (Paper defining the update language EVOLP)
- J. J. Alferes, A. Brogi, J. A. Leite, L. M. Pereira. An Evolvable Rule-Based E-mail Agent, in S. Abreu (ed.), Progress in Artificial Intelligence, Procs. 11th Portuguese Int. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (EPIA''03), Springer, LNAI , Beja, Portugal, December 2003 (Paper with the email agent example in EVOLP)
- T. Eiter, G. Ianni, A. Polleres, R. Schindlauer, and H. Tompits. Reasoning with rules and ontologies. In Reasoning Web 2006, volume 4126 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 93-127. Springer, 2006. (Tutorial on the combination of rules and ontologies, which includes the definition of dl-Programs).
Lectures with Slides and labs with a programming project for groups of 2 students.
The evaluation is comprised of theoretical and practical components.
Both components are evaluated in a scale of 0 the 20, rounded off to units.
The final grade of discipline is the weighed average of the two components, with 75% being the weight of the theoretical component and 25% that of the practical one.
For the Computational Logic MSc, an equivalent ECTS grade is provided.
This component is realized by an open book written exam on a date to be established by the "Serviço de Planeamento" of FCT/UNL.
This component consists in accomplishing a work assignment, whose specification will be presented opportunely. The work assignment:
- It is carried out in groups of maximum 2 pupils.
- It must be accompanied by a report.
- It must be delivered until before the exam date (the date will be specified beforehand).
- It is subject to oral discussion, where all members of the group must be present.