Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente
Teacher in charge
Maria Rosa Santos de Paiva, Maria Teresa Calvão Rodrigues
It is considered that Environmental Engineers must be able of undestanding and analysing the following topics::
- Energy and ecosystems: use and degradation by populations and communities. Practical applications: quantification of different types of ecosystem productivities; evaluation of the positive and negative impacts resulting from the application of different strategies aiming at productivity optimization.
- Responses at population and community level, to physical and biotic parameters. Practical applications: to forecast the type and sign of responses, allowing for the evaluation of the limits of tolerance of the organisms to environmental impacts.
- -Main mechanisms shapping population dynamics. Practical applications: modelling of population processes and forecast of population numbers.
- Basic understanding of the structure, dynamics and problems presently faced by some types of biomes. Practical applications: design of adequate strategies for ecosystem and biome management
In summary, students will be able of interpreting , based on scientific principles., the main processes undergone by natural communities. They should become aware of the potential of Ecology as a tool applicable to the mitigation of environmental problems.
Students should have obtained approval in all subjects lectured in previous semesters. Particularly relevant for the study of Ecology are: Introduction to Enviromental Problems, Probability and Statistics, Analysis of Environmental Data, Climatology and Biology.
1- Ecology: Relationship with other sciences. Ecosystems: Energy and productivity. 2- Energetic inputs and productivity; strategies related to the optimization of different types of productivity. 3- Evolution and conservation of genetic biodiversity; main genetic mechanisms and ecological consequences. 4- Influence of some ecological factors upon the distribution, eco-physiology and behaviour of the organisms. Ecological factors: Limitng role, general principles and practical applications. 5- Introduction to population dynamics. Population budgets: Analysis, ecological intrepretation and predictive value. 6- Introduction to community dynamics; strucuture and evolutionary tendencies; relationships between diversity, stability and productivity. Synthesis. 7 - Role of Ecology in addressing / solving contemporary problems. Causes of biodiversity loss and measures to halt it. Analysis of one study case proposed by the students.
1 .Main Topic: Introduction to Ecology, general principles, energy flows in ecosystems
*Mc PHERSON, G. R., DeSTEFANO, S. 2002. Applied Ecology and Natural Resource Management. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521009758
*ODUM, E. 1971. Fundamentos de Ecologia. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa. [Note: Chapter 3 only: “Princípios e Conceitos Fundamentais Relacionados com a Energia”]
2. Main Topic: Biodiversity: teorethical and applied introductory aspects
*GASTON, K.J., SPICER, J. I. 2004. Biodiversity – An Introduction. Blackwell Pub. Co. ISBN 1-4051-1857-1
*MAGURRAN, A. E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its measurement. University Press, Cambridge.
3.Main Topic: Population Dynamics
*BEGON, M, MORTIMER, M , THOMPSON, D THOMPSON, D B A. 1996. Population Ecology A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. Blackwell Science Ltd Blackwell Science (UK). ISBN: 0632034785
*PITÉ, M. T. e AVELAR, T. 1996. Ecologia das Populações e das Comunidades - uma abordagem evolutiva do estudo da biodiversidade. Edição da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa.
*RANTA, E., KAITALA, V., LUNDBERG, P. 2005. Ecology of Populations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521854350.
*SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E., HANDERSON, P. A. 2000. Ecological Methods. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0632054778.
*VANDERMEER, J.H., GOLDBERG, D.E. 2003. Population Ecology First Principles. University Press of Califirnia, Columbia and Princeton University Press. ISBN: 0691114412.
4. Main Topic: Population Genetics – an evolutionary and ecological perspective.
*BOLHUIS, J.J., GIRALDEAU, L-A. 2005. The Behavior of Animals. Mechanisms, Functions, and Evolution. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
*RAUP, D.M. 1991. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck ? W.W. Norton, N. York.
*RIDLEY, M. 1993. Evolution. Blackwell Sci. Pub., Cambridge, U.K.
5. Main Topic: Communities, Ecosystems and Biomes
*PIMM, S. L. 1982. Food Webs. Chapman & Hall, London.
*PRIMACK. R. , CORLETT, R. 2005. Tropical Rain Forests. An Ecological and Biogeographical Comparison. Blackwell, UK
*PUTMAN, R. J. 1994. Community Ecology. Chapman & Hall, London.
*WEITHER, EVAN KEDDY, PAUL. 2001. Ecological Assembly Rules: Perspectives, Advances, Retreats. Blackwell Science. ISBN: 0521655331
ALGUNS LIVROS HISTÓRICOS e de DIVULGAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA -
SOME HYSTORICAL AND POPULAR SCIENCE BOOKS:
* CARSON, Rachel. 2000 (written in 1962). Silent Spring. Penguin Classic. ISBN 0141184949. // *CROSBY, A.W. 1994 (written 1986). Ecological Imperialism - The biological expansion of Europe, 900 -1900. Cambridge Uni. Press, 368 pp. // *DARWIN, Charles R. 1859. On the origin of Species. John Murray, London, U.K. // * DAWKINS, L. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK. //*DAWKINS, L. 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. W.W. Norton, New York and Longman, London. // * DIAMOND, J. 1995. The Rise and Fall of the 3rd Chimpanzee. London. // * MAATHAI, Wangari. 2004. The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience. Lantern Books. ISBN: 159056040X
EXEMPLO DE REVISTAS CIENTÍFICAS // SOME JOURNALS
Annual Review of Ecology and Evolution // Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics // Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology // Journal of Ecology // Journal of Applied Ecology // Nature // Oecologia // Oikos
EXEMPLO DE WEB SITES
*Revista Ecologi@, editada pela Sociedade Portuguesa de Ecologia – SPECO: http://speco.fc.ul.pt/revistaecologia.html
*Revista Ecosistemas, editada pela Sociedade Espanhola de Ecologia Terrestre http://www.revistaecosistemas.net/
* WebEcology, revista editada pela EEF - Federação Europeia de Ecologia (onde se encontram filiadas as Sociedades de Ecologia dos países Europeus): http://www.eurecol.org/eef/eef.html
*IUCN – International Society for Nature Conservation : http://www.iucn.org
*EEA – European Environment Agency: http://eaa.eu.int
*British Ecological Society http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/
*European Environment Agency, Copenhagen: http://www.eea.europa.eu/
*LPN - Liga para a Protecção da Natureza: http://www.lpn.pt
For students who are attending the practical classes this year, Final Mark will be calculated as follows:
40% * mark of the test or exam + 15% * mark of the mini-tests (average) + 45% * mark of the practical component.
For students who attended classes last year, Final Mark will be calculated as follows:
55% * mark of the test or examination + 45% * mark of the practical component.
Tests: 24 October at 8.30 and 14 December at 15h.
Date of four mini-tests to be performed during the practical sessions:
October 4, October 18, November 8 and November 22
The mini-tests will consist of 2-3 questions, multiple choice or questions with short answers.
Visit to the Campus of FCT, October 11. Each session begins at the entrance of the Chemistry Department, near the "pools".
November. 8 - Delivery of the 1st work
December 6 - 2nd delivery of work
The students who attend the tests will not be able to go the first date exam (normal), they will only be able to go to the second date exam (recurso).
Students that in the 1st test score less than 8.5 can no longer do the 2nd test and they will only be able to go to the second date exam (recurso).
PRESENCE - Students must attend at least 2/3 of the practical classes and they will have to do two written reports referring to the practical component. It is essential to obtain a minimum score of 10 marks in the practical component.
WORKING STUDENTS - Students with Student-worker status, recognized by the Academic Services will also have to do two written reports referring to the practical component.
METHOD OF TEACHING
The teaching method adopted is the continuous one, which requires a continuous and active participation of students in deepening the topics outlined in class. Students should invest a minimum of 3 hours per week. The course page contains the most relevant information.