Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia

Mineralogy

Code

10664

Academic unit

Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia

Department

Departamento de Ciências da Terra

Credits

6.0

Teacher in charge

Joaquim António dos Reis Silva Simão

Weekly hours

5

Total hours

106

Teaching language

Português

Objectives

The study of minerals, their chemical composition and crystalline structure and the distribution of elements in the crystal structure. Occurrences, important factors for their formatios, mineral association in the rocks. Physical and chemical properties, diagnostic properties. Optical characteristics.

Subject matter

GENERAL PROGRAM

1. Introduction

Definition of mineral.

History and progress in mineralogy.

Economic importance of minerals.

Importance of the study of mineralogy.

 
2. Crystallography

Properties of matter. Poliedry and crystalline state. Processes of cristalization.Simetriy of crystals. Unit cell, spatial networks, networks of Bravais; elements of extern symmetry.The seven crystallographic systems: cubic, or isometric, tetragonal, hexagonal, orthorhombic, trigonal, monoclinic triclinic. Procedure to the description of the crystals. Law of constancy of interfacial angles, measurement of interfacial angles (goniometry). Stereographic projection (Wulff net). Reference crystallographic axes of the faces and its names. Axial ratio, Miller symbols . Crystallographic Forms; closed shapes and open forms .The 32 classes of crystals. Interdependency Theorems . Geminação (or twinning). Repeated Twinning  examples of twinning, twinning causes.

3. X-rays and crystal structure

Application of the X-ray study of matter critstalina. Characteristics of X-rays. X-ray diffraction. Lauegrams; rotating crystal method, Method of powders or Debye, Scherrer & Hull. Diffractometry.

 
4. Physical properties of minerals

Density (and density measurement), density and polimorfism .Hardness and cohesive properties, cleavage, fracture, involving tenacity. Properties related with the excitation energy of the crystal color, fluorescence and phosphorescence, streak; luster (metallic submetálico, non-metallic); piezoelectricity; piroelectricity. Radioactivity. Magnetic Properties of minerals: paramagnetism and diamagnetism.

5. Chemical Mineralogy

Nature and characteristics of major types of electrical forces connecting the constituent particles of crystalline matter, metallic bonding, covalent, ionic and Van der Waals. Structural arrangement. Stability of crystal structures. Electronegatividade. Notion of electrostatic valence. Variation of chemical composition of minerals: diadoquy; solid solution. Exsolution. Typomorphism. Isomorphism and Polymorphism.

6. Descriptive Mineralogy.

Classification of mineral

Native Elements: Metals (copper, silver, gold, platinum), Semi-metals (arsenic, antimony, bismuth), non-metals (diamond, graphite, sulfur).

Sulphides and Sulfosalts. Argentite, chalcocite, bornite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, covellite, cinnabar, pyrite, cobaltite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, molybdenite, tetraedrite, realgar, ouropigmento, estibnite and others.

Halides: halite, sylvite, fluorite, and other carnallite.

Oxides: cuprite, periclase, corundum, hematite, ilmenite, perovskite, group of spinels (magnetite, ulvospinel, chromite), rutile, pyrolusite, cassiterite, uraninite, pyrochlore.

Hydroxide, brucite, gibbsite, goethite, manganite, psilomelano and others.

Carbonates: calcite, magnesite, siderite, rodocrosite, smithsonite, dolomite, aragonite, estroncianite, cerussite, azurite, malachite.

Molibdadte
s and tungstates: wolframite and scheeite.

Phosphates, arsenates and Vanadates: apatite, monazite, xenotime, ambligonite, pyromorphite, turquoise, torbernite, autunite, carnotite.

Sulfates, barite, celestite, anglesite, anhydrite, gypsum.

Borates: borax, ulexite and colemanite

Silicates: study of the structures of silicates.Nesossilicatos: group of olivine, zircon, esfena, andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite, topaz, garnet.

Sorossilicatos. epidote group , lawsonite, hemimorfite, melilite, vesuvianite.

Cyclosilicates: beryl, cordierite, tourmaline.

Inosilicates: the pyroxene group, group wolastonite, the amphibole group.

Phyllosilicates, serpentine, pyrophyllite, talc, a group of micas, chlorite group, prenite. Group of clay minerals: a result of the transformation of other minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, properties, applications.

Tectossilicates: Group of silica, quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal);

Feldspar (alkali: sanidine, orthoclase, microcline, adularia, anortoclase, Plagioclase and albite: albite, oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, bitownite, anorthite), group of feldspathoids: (nepheline, leucite, sodalite), group of zeolites (analcite , chabazite, laumontite, estilbite, apofilite, natrolite) escapolite; cancrinite.

Bibliography

Mineralogy for Students, 3rd Ed. Longman Scientific & Technical Autor(es): Battey, M.H., 2nd. Ed., Ano: 1992
Manual of Mineral Science. Klein, C., Hurlbut, C.S. (after Dana, E.S). John Wiley & Sons. 22nd E., 641p.
Elementos de Cristalografia, 1980. Borges, F. Sodré. F. Calouste Gulbenkian, 624 pp. Minerais, Constituintes das Rochas - Uma Introdução, 1966. Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. & Zussman, Tradução de L.E.N. Conde. F. Calouste Gulbenkian. Mineralogy, 1959.
A Textbook of Mineralogy. Berry, L.G. & Mason, Brian. W.H. Freeman & Company, 1999.

Teaching method

Mineralogy is a unit taught in theoretical and practical classes. The theoretical lectures are taught using the projection of illustrative slides of the program subjects. There is concern to demonstrate the content taught with materials and exercises whenever necessary. These slides are available to students immediately after the end of classes together with a summary in  the CLIP platform.

The practical classes have a strong labor component where the student intended to acquire great autonomy in stereographic r projection of crystallographic models and description and identification of mineral species. Students do 60-80 reports of the most important geological and economic mineral species.

Evaluation method

Continuous evaluation with 4 minitests.

Final Exam.

The frequancy is obtained with the presence in 2/3 of the pratical  classes.

Courses