Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia

Biological Indicators on Agro Industrial Quality



Academic unit

Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia


Departamento de Ciências e Tecnologia da Biomassa



Teacher in charge

Ana Lúcia Monteiro Durão Leitão, Benilde Simões Mendes

Weekly hours


Total hours


Teaching language



Acquisition of expertise and ability:(1) Concept and representatives of indicators of agro industries; (2) Productive process and quality parameters.


Acquisition of ability and proficiency: (1) Sampling, monitoring and methodologies; (2) Quality control and sanitary surveillance.


Acquisition of expertise, ability and proficiency: (1) Impact evaluation on the quality of natural and human ecosystems; (2) Intervention to solve concrete problems; (3) Use of the EC standards and legal regulations.


Background on biology and chemistry.

Subject matter

A.- Lectures

  1. Introduction
  2. Characterization of the main types of biological hazards
  3. Factors influencing microbial growth in food  
  4. Concepts  and criteria of selection of indicators of food microbial quality
  5. Strategies of verification of hygiene and safety requirements in the food industries
  6. Microbial food spoilage
  7. Microbial foodborne diseases

B.- Practical component:

  1. Examination of microbial indicators of water quality
    • Detection and enumeration of total coliforms
    • Detection and enumeration of faecal coliforms
    • Detection and enumeration of Enterococcus
  2. Microbiological analysis in foodstuffs
    • Detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli
    • Fungi enumeration




Mendes B, Santos Oliveira JF (2004) Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano. Lidel-Edições Técnicas, Lda (Ed.), Lisboa, Porto, Coimbra, 625 pp, (ISBN 972757274X).

 Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA (2005) Modern food microbiology. 7ª Edição, Springer Science, Nova York, EUA, 790 pp, (ISBN 0-387-23180-3).

 Ray B, Bhunia A (2008) Fundamental food microbiology. 4ª Edição, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Londres, Nova York, 492 pp, (ISBN-13:978-0-8493-7529-3).

 Adams MR, Moss MO (1995) Microbiología de los alimentos. Acribia, S.A., Zaragoza, Espanha, 464pp, (ISBN 84-200-0830-3).


Teaching method

Theoretical classrooms data show. Practical laboratory sessions.

Evaluation method

- Continuous assessment with 4 elements of evaluation:

Evaluation of theoretical component: 2 Tests (each one 30% to the final grade). Weighted average of the 2 elements of evaluation must be equal or higher than 9.5 values (scale of 20).

Evaluation of the practical component: 1) Assiduity of the practical laboratorial sessions; (2) Elaboration and discussion of two practical reports (each one 20% to the final grade).

Final rating: (0.60*Theoretical component) + (0.40*Practical component). Approval with a minimum score of 9.5 (scale of 20).

- Students without approval on the continuous assessment examination can proceed to the final exam, with the classification being defined by: 0.60 *Exam + 0.40*Classification of the practical component. Approval with a minimum score of 9.5 (scale of 20).

- Improvement of the classification requires a registration in the schedule examination period. The classification of the practical component cannot be improved and follows in the next year.