Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia

Industrial and Ornamental Rocks



Academic unit

Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia


Departamento de Ciências da Terra



Teacher in charge

António Carlos Gil Augusto Galhano, Joaquim António dos Reis Silva Simão

Weekly hours


Total hours


Teaching language




The main goal is to lead students to understand the meaning of mineral resources in society, based on the knowledge of: origin and occurrences of mineral deposits, relationship between mineral deposits and geological processes; economic factors considered in mineral exploration. Dimension stones and parameters to their use; technological properties, mineralogical and geological origin in their evaluation.


Previous knowledge in mineralogy and geochemistry and general geology.

Subject matter

Concept of industrial minerals and rocks, natural rock and dimension stone. Natural resources, inventory . Classification of industrial minerals and rocks. IMIWOG proposed classification. Rock types used in the industry and as dimension stone.Geologic concept versus comercial concept of dimension stone. (Granites and marbles) . Colour, texture, homogeneity in colour and texture. Mineral composition. Composition and origin versus physical and mechanical properties of industrial rocks and of dimension stones. Silicate rocks of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic origin, carbonate rocks of sedimentary and metamorphic origin. Physico-mechanical caracterization. Experiments and properties tests. Rock uses in Architecture. Rock alteration and implications on their uses. Alteration as climate response.Pollution and salinity of atmosphere as an alteration factor. Conservation and restauration of rocks.



Casal Moura, A. coord. (2009) - ORNABASE, Catalogue of Portuguese Ornamental Stones. Online version: http://rop.ineti.pt/rop/index_en.php

Casal Moura, A. coord. (2007) - Mármores e calcários ornamentais de Portugal. INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação, 383 p

Moura, António & Velho, José (2011) – Recursos geológicos de Portugal. Editora Palimage, 571pp.

VELHO, José Lopes (2005) - Mineralogia Industrial, Princípios e aplicações. Lidel-edições técnicas Limitada, 606 pp.

GOMES, Celso (2002) - Argilas-aplicações na industria, Universidade de Aveiro, 338 pp.

EVANS, A. M. (1993) - Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals: An Introduction. Blackwell Science, London, 389pp.

MANNING, D. (1995) - Introduction to Industrial Minerals. Chapman & Hall, London, 276pp.

MOURA, A.C. (2000) – Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal. Publ. do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro. Marca–Artes Gráficas, Porto. 179p.

GOMES, C.F. (1990) Minerais Industriais - Matérias Primas Cerâmicas; Instituto Nacional.

Teaching method


The course is oriented in theoretical and practical classes.

There will be field trips to industrial exploration of rocks and clays and sands.

Evaluation method

Test 1 (30 %)

Test 2 (40 %)

Laboratory work and presentations (30%)

The frequency is obtained by the presence of two thirds of lessons.

Student "working student":

Final exam (60%)

Work synthesis with presentation (40%)